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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 150-158

Embryological basis of malformed female genital tract and various classifications

1 Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Haldwani, Uttarakhand, India
2 Professor, Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Haldwani, Uttarakhand, India
3 Assistant Professor of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Kannauj, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Richa Niranjan
Associate Professor of Anatomy, Government Medical College Campus, Haldwani - 263 139, Uttara Khand
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

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Developmental anomalies of the Mullerian duct system represent some of the most fascinating disorders that obstetricians and gynaecologists encounter. The uterus is formed during embryogenesis by the fusion of the two paramesonephric ducts (Mullerian ducts). This process usually fuses the two Mullerian ducts into a single uterine body, but fails to take place in the affected women who maintain their double Mullerian systems. A bicornuate uterus is a type of a uterine malformation where upper part of uterus forms two horns. The fusion process of upper part of Mullerian duct is altered. As a result, cranial part of the uterus becomes bifurcated. As Mullerian duct anomalies are of anatomic interest, this article discusses epidemiology, embryological development, genetics of development and malformation and lastly various classifications based on Mullerian duct development. Pregnancy in bicornuate uterus is usually of high risk with reproductive outcomes like recurrent abortions, preterm delivery or malpresentation. Classifying Mullerian duct anomalies bears merit because it correlates anatomic anomalies with arrests in morphogenesis. Establishing an accurate diagnosis is essential for planning treatment and management strategies.

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