NJCA
  • Users Online: 79
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
  • Email this page
  • Facebook
  • Twitter


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 146-150

Comparison of Height, Hand Length and Foot Length between the Tribal and the Non tribal population of North East India


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Jorhat Medical College and Hospital, Jorhat, Assam, India
2 Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Jorhat Medical College and Hospital, Jorhat, Assam, India
3 Lecturer cum Statistician, Department of Community Medicine, Jorhat Medical College and Hospital, Jorhat, Assam, India

Date of Submission02-Jan-2020
Date of Decision06-May-2020
Date of Acceptance23-May-2020
Date of Web Publication7-Dec-2020

Correspondence Address:
Manumati Munglang
Department of Anatomy, Tomo Riba Institute of Health and Medical Sciences, Naharlagun, Arunachal Pradesh
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/NJCA.NJCA_66_20

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Background: Estimation of body parameters is an important part of human anthropology and forensic science. Aims: To compare the height, hand length and foot length between the tribal and non-tribal population of North-east India and also to find the correlation between the hand length, foot length and height. Methods: Measurements were taken from a total of 200 healthy adults of which 100 (50 males + 50 females) belonging to the tribal community and another 100 (50 males+50 females) belonging to the non-tribal community. Height, hand and foot length were measured and their mean and standard deviation were calculated. Hand length to foot length ratio, hand length and foot length to height ratio and the correlation between the hand length and foot length and hand length to height and foot length to height were studied in all the groups. Result: All the studied parameters showed extremely statistical significance (P < 0.0001) when compared between the tribal and the non-tribal group and also between the males and the females of both the groups. There was a significant positive correlation between hand length, foot length and height in all the groups. Conclusion: From the present study it is concluded that if the length of one parameter is known, the other could be accurately calculated from the regression equations.

Keywords: Foot length, Hand length, Height, Non-tribal, North-east part of India, Tribal


How to cite this article:
Munglang M, Bora D, Roy RD, Medhi AH. Comparison of Height, Hand Length and Foot Length between the Tribal and the Non tribal population of North East India. Natl J Clin Anat 2020;9:146-50

How to cite this URL:
Munglang M, Bora D, Roy RD, Medhi AH. Comparison of Height, Hand Length and Foot Length between the Tribal and the Non tribal population of North East India. Natl J Clin Anat [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Jan 24];9:146-50. Available from: http://www.njca.info/text.asp?2020/9/4/146/302571




  Introduction Top


Every individual human being appears different from each other. These variations in various physical parameters depend on many factors such as environment, genetics, nutrition, and lifestyles. The North-East part of India is a region with huge diversity in terms of human origin, their appearance, ethnic group, culture, and lifestyle. Majority of the inhabitants are tribals, but another group of people, the nontribals also reside here who have settled here from other parts of India. Identification of a person from skeletal parts and body remains is very important for forensic studies, anthropologists, and anatomists in cases of disasters such as plane crash, bomb blasts, earthquakes, suicides, and murders. Determination of sex and stature from incomplete skeletal remains and putrefying bodies is critical in forensic science.[1],[2],[3] Estimation of height from length of extremities plays a vital role in the identification of individuals.[4],[5] Stature has been considered as one of the parameters for personal identification.[6] The study was done to compare the height, length of the hand and foot between the tribal and the nontribal individuals of the North-East part of India and also to report the correlations between these various parameters. The body segment relationships were used to compare and study the difference between different groups of people and to correlate them to energy expenditure, locomotion, and lifestyle.[7] Height measurement was documented to be important for the estimation of basic energy requirements and for calculating drug dosages.[8]

The objective of the present study was to compare the height, hand length and foot length between the tribal and non-tribal population of North-east India and also to find the correlation between the hand length, foot length and height.


  Materials and Methods Top


Subjects

The study was done at Jorhat Medical College, Jorhat, Assam, India. One hundred healthy tribal adults (50 males + 50 females) were subjected to anthropometric measurements. The data were compared with one hundred healthy nontribal adults (50 males + 50 females). All individuals selected were aged between 25 and 40 years, considering the fact that the ossification of almost all the bones in our body is completed by the age of 25 years and the individual has attended maximum height by this age and that regression of bones starts as early as 40 years. All individuals were without any physical deformities of hand and foot. As age advances, a slow decline in the height was documented.[9] The study was conducted after getting approval from the institutional ethics committee. Informed consent was obtained from individuals before subjecting them to study. The nine parameters were studied, i.e., body height, hand length, foot length, hand length to foot length ratio, hand length and foot length to stature ratio, and correlation between hand length and foot length and between hand length with height and foot length with height. The measurements were recorded in accordance with the International Biological Program Protocol.[10]

Hand length

Individuals were asked to keep their hands on a white paper with the palm facing upward. A hand tracing was made extending from the styloid process of radius to the styloid process of ulna and line joining these two points termed as the interstyloid line. The distance between the midpoint of the above said interstyloid line and the tip of the middle finger is considered as the length of the hand.[11]

Foot length

The individuals were asked to stand straight on a calibrated footboard after removing their shoes and socks. The measured distance between the posterior most point of the heel and tip of the second toe, i.e., the anterior most point of the foot was considered as the foot length.[12]

Body height

The individuals were made to stand on barefoot in an erect anatomical posture against the wall with the most posterior point of the heel touching the wall. The height was measured from vertex to heel of the foot with the head (Frankfurt horizontal plane).[13] All the anthropometric measurements were taken in centimeters using a calibrated footboard, a stadiometer, and a measuring tape. The measurements were taken by the same persons to ensure uniformity of measurement.

Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software (IBM Inc, New York). The mean, standard deviation, and linear regression equations were calculated. The hand length to foot length ratio was obtained by dividing the mean hand length by the mean foot length and that of the hand and foot length to stature ratio was obtained by dividing the mean of hand length and foot length by the height.[14]

Paired sample t-test was calculated using Graph pad software. Results were considered significant if P < 0.01. The correlation between various dimensions was studied using Pearson’s correlation coefficient.


  Results Top


In the present study, the height difference between the males and females of both tribal and nontribal groups was found to be extremely statistically significant (P < 0.0001) in which the mean height of tribal males was found to be 168.04 ± 7.8 cm, compared to that of the tribal females which was 156.62 ± 5.47 cm [Table 1] and [Figure 1] and that of the nontribal males was 167.68 ± 5.42 cm and the nontribal females was 159.96 ± 2.97 cm [Table 1] and [Figure 1]. The other parameters like the hand length (right and left) and the foot length (right and left) between the males and females of both the groups were also found to be highly significant [P < 0.0001, [Table 1] and [Table 2]]. The hand length to foot length ratio between the two genders of the tribal group was also statistically significant [P < 0.01, [Table 1]], whereas the same in the nontribal group was not found to be significant with P = 0.4702 [Table 2]. The hand length and foot length to stature ratio was again found to be highly significant among the males and females of the tribal group [P < 0.0001, [Table 1]], but the same parameter was not significant in case of nontribal group [P = 1, [Table 2]]. On comparing the height, the limb dimensions, and limb ratios between the males of the tribal and the nontribal group, none of the above parameters was significant [Table 3]. However, when compared between the females of the tribal and the nontribal group, the height (P = 0.01), the foot length (P = 0.01), and the hand and foot length to stature ratio (P < 0.0001) were found to be statistically significant, whereas the difference between the hand length and the hand length to foot length ratio (P = 0.10) was not found to be statistically significant [Table 4]. The study showed statistical significance for all the parameters when compared between the male and female group as a whole, except for the ratio between the length of hand and foot to height [P = 1, [Table 5]].
Figure 1: Average height of male and female in the tribal and nontribal groups

Click here to view
Table 1: Measurement of the parameters in the Tribal group

Click here to view
Table 2: Measurement of the parameters in the Non-tribal group

Click here to view
Table 3: Comparison between the parameters of the Tribal and the Non-tribal male groups

Click here to view
Table 4: Comparison between the parameters of the Tribal and the Non-tribal female groups

Click here to view
Table 5: Comparison of parameters between of male and female groups as a whole

Click here to view


The observations showed a positive correlation between the hand length and foot length, which was highest in the nontribal female group [r = 0.813, [Table 6]]. A positive correlation was also observed between hand length with height and foot length with height in all the groups with a statistical significance [P < 0.001, [Table 7]]. The highest was noted in the tribal male group which was found to be extremely statistically significant (P < 0.0001), where correlation coefficient (r) = 0.789 between the hand length and height and that between the foot length and height was (r) = 0.7163 [Table 7]. Regression equations were formulated which gave predictive value for the height, hand length, and foot length [Table 6] and [Table 7].
Table 6: Correlation between hand length (HL) to foot length (FL)

Click here to view
Table 7: Correlation between hand length (HL) and Height (H) and between foot length (FL) and Height (H)

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


In the present study, some parameters when compared between the males and females of both tribal and nontribal groups were seen to be extremely significant (P < 0.0001), which included height and limb lengths of both sides [Table 1] and [Table 2]. In all the groups, the parameters were seen to be having greater values in males compared to females [Table 5]. This may be due to the early onset of maturity in females. Similar findings of sexual difference in the limb lengths and widths were also reported earlier and that these parameters were larger in the males than in the females.[1],[6],[15] The hand length to foot length ratio and the hand length and foot length to stature ratio were found to be extremely statistically significant between the two genders of the tribal group but were not significant in the nontribal group. This probably implies that the tribal males are having significantly higher values of the height and limb dimensions than that of their counterpart females, whereas this disparity is less seen in the nontribal group. In a study by Geetha et al.,[16] males were found to have higher mean values for all the studied parameters than females, and the difference was found to be highly significant. Analysis of genetically disparate population by Saxena and Lundy and Feldesman revealed a clear sexual dimorphism, in which women were documented to have lesser hand proportion to height than men.[17],[18]

On comparing the males of the tribal and the nontribal group, there was no significance of the above parameters [Table 3]. This probably suggests that there is not much difference in the body parameters among the males of the tribal and nontribal group. But in case of females, almost all the parameters between the tribal and the nontribal group were found to be statistically significant, except for the hand length and ratio between hand length to foot length [Table 4]. This probably suggests that females of different ethnic groups have comparatively similar hand lengths, whereas the difference in the stature between the females of the two groups was found to be extremely statistically significant. Krishan and Sharma, 2007,[6] stated that various features of a population could be studied from statures such as nutritional health and genetics.

The observation showed that there existed a positive correlation between the hand length and foot length and between the height with hand length and height with foot length in all the groups with a statistical significance [P < 0.001, [Table 6] and [Table 7]]. Similar studies conducted by Ibegbu et al. showed that prediction of height, age, weight, and body mass index (BMI) could be possible from knowledge of hand length and also there was a significant correlation between hand length and height, weight, age, and BMI in both the sexes.[19] Gauld and Rakhir also observed that the hand length was a reliable means in predicting the height of an individual.[20]


  Conclusion Top


The current study showed a statistically significant difference in the hand length, foot length, and height when compared between the tribal and nontribal population of North-East India and also between males and females in general. The observation showed a positive correlation between the hand length and with that of the foot length and between the height with hand length and height with foot length in all the studied groups. Hence, it is concluded that if the length of one body part is known, the other could be accurately calculated from the formulated regression equations. This is of immense importance in identifying a person from incomplete skeletal remains and decomposing bodies and especially useful to anthropologists and anatomists.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Agnihotri AK, Shukla S, Purwar B. Determination of sex from the foot measurements. The Internet J Forensic Sci 2007;2:1.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
El-Meligy MM, Abdel-Hady RH, Abdel-Maaboud RM, Mohamed ZT. Estimation of human body built in Egyptians. Forensic Sci Int 2006;159:27-31.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Ozaslan A, Işcan MY, Ozaslan I, Tuğcu H, Koç S. Estimation of stature from body parts. Forensic Sci Int 2003;132:40-50.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Nath S, Dayal N. And Chandara NS. Reconstruction of stature using percutaneous lengths of forearm bones among Mundas of Midnapore district. J West Bengal Hum Biol 1998;37:170-5.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Ebite MN, Guachi ST, Frisher KR. Predicting stature through hand length. J Crime Criminal 2000;52:23-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Krishan K, Sharma A. Estimation of stature from dimension of hands and feet in North Indian Population. J Forensic Legal Med 2007;14:327-32.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Agnihotri A, Adiilah K, Lalloo SU. Estimation of stature from fragmented human remains. Anthropol 2013;3:1-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Jalzem PF, Gledhill RB. Predicting height from limb measurement. J Paediatr Orthop 1993;13:761-65.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Vallois HV. Anthropometric techniques. Curr Anthropol 1965;6:127-44.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Weiner J, Lourie J. Human Biology: A Guide, to Field Methods. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1969.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Amirsheybani HR, Crecelius GM, Timothy NH, Pfeiffer M, Saggers GC, Manders EK. Natural history of the growth of the hand: Part II-hand length as a treatment guide in the pediatric trauma patient. J Trauma 2000;49:457-60.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Peker T, Turgut HB, Anil A, Ulukent SC. An examination of the relationship between foot length, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 (toe lengths), ankle circumference and calf circumference of Turkish University students aged between 17 – 25 years. Morphologie 1997;81:13-8.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Shailesh M, Vikash D, Srushti R, et al. Anthropological study of the foot and its relationship between different parameters and stature in an adult population of different areas of Gujarat. J Indian Res Med 2011;2:67-72.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Fessler DM, Haley KJ, Lal RD. Sexual dimorphism in foot length proportionate to stature. Ann Hum Biol 2005:32:44-59.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Danborno B, Elukpo A. Sexual dimorphism in hand and foot length, indices, stature-ratio and relationship to height in Nigerians. Int J Forensic Sci 2007;3:1.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Geetha GN, Swathi, Athavale SA. Estimation of stature from hand and foot measurements in a rare tribe of Kerala State in India. J Clin Diagn Res 2015;9:HC01-04.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Saxena SK. A study of correlations and estimation of stature from hand length hand breadth and sole length. Anthropol Anz 1984;42:271-6.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Lundy JK, Feldesman MR. Revised equations for estimating living stature from long bone of the South African Negro. South Afr J Forensic Sci 1987;83:54-5.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Ibegbu AO, David ET, Hamman WO, Umana UE. S A musa hand length as a determination of height in school children. Adv Life Sci 2015;5:12-7.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Gauld RF, Rakhir SM. The prediction of stature from hand length. J Crime Crim 1996;8:79-81.  Back to cited text no. 20
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed520    
    Printed10    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded50    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]