|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 146-150
Comparison of Height, Hand Length and Foot Length between the Tribal and the Non tribal population of North East India
Manumati Munglang1, Debabani Bora2, Rajat Dutta Roy1, Anuradha Hazarika Medhi3
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Jorhat Medical College and Hospital, Jorhat, Assam, India
2 Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Jorhat Medical College and Hospital, Jorhat, Assam, India
3 Lecturer cum Statistician, Department of Community Medicine, Jorhat Medical College and Hospital, Jorhat, Assam, India
|Date of Submission||02-Jan-2020|
|Date of Decision||06-May-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||23-May-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||7-Dec-2020|
Department of Anatomy, Tomo Riba Institute of Health and Medical Sciences, Naharlagun, Arunachal Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Estimation of body parameters is an important part of human anthropology and forensic science. Aims: To compare the height, hand length and foot length between the tribal and non-tribal population of North-east India and also to find the correlation between the hand length, foot length and height. Methods: Measurements were taken from a total of 200 healthy adults of which 100 (50 males + 50 females) belonging to the tribal community and another 100 (50 males+50 females) belonging to the non-tribal community. Height, hand and foot length were measured and their mean and standard deviation were calculated. Hand length to foot length ratio, hand length and foot length to height ratio and the correlation between the hand length and foot length and hand length to height and foot length to height were studied in all the groups. Result: All the studied parameters showed extremely statistical significance (P < 0.0001) when compared between the tribal and the non-tribal group and also between the males and the females of both the groups. There was a significant positive correlation between hand length, foot length and height in all the groups. Conclusion: From the present study it is concluded that if the length of one parameter is known, the other could be accurately calculated from the regression equations.
Keywords: Foot length, Hand length, Height, Non-tribal, North-east part of India, Tribal
|How to cite this article:|
Munglang M, Bora D, Roy RD, Medhi AH. Comparison of Height, Hand Length and Foot Length between the Tribal and the Non tribal population of North East India. Natl J Clin Anat 2020;9:146-50
|How to cite this URL:|
Munglang M, Bora D, Roy RD, Medhi AH. Comparison of Height, Hand Length and Foot Length between the Tribal and the Non tribal population of North East India. Natl J Clin Anat [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Jan 24];9:146-50. Available from: http://www.njca.info/text.asp?2020/9/4/146/302571
| Introduction|| |
Every individual human being appears different from each other. These variations in various physical parameters depend on many factors such as environment, genetics, nutrition, and lifestyles. The North-East part of India is a region with huge diversity in terms of human origin, their appearance, ethnic group, culture, and lifestyle. Majority of the inhabitants are tribals, but another group of people, the nontribals also reside here who have settled here from other parts of India. Identification of a person from skeletal parts and body remains is very important for forensic studies, anthropologists, and anatomists in cases of disasters such as plane crash, bomb blasts, earthquakes, suicides, and murders. Determination of sex and stature from incomplete skeletal remains and putrefying bodies is critical in forensic science.,, Estimation of height from length of extremities plays a vital role in the identification of individuals., Stature has been considered as one of the parameters for personal identification. The study was done to compare the height, length of the hand and foot between the tribal and the nontribal individuals of the North-East part of India and also to report the correlations between these various parameters. The body segment relationships were used to compare and study the difference between different groups of people and to correlate them to energy expenditure, locomotion, and lifestyle. Height measurement was documented to be important for the estimation of basic energy requirements and for calculating drug dosages.
The objective of the present study was to compare the height, hand length and foot length between the tribal and non-tribal population of North-east India and also to find the correlation between the hand length, foot length and height.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The study was done at Jorhat Medical College, Jorhat, Assam, India. One hundred healthy tribal adults (50 males + 50 females) were subjected to anthropometric measurements. The data were compared with one hundred healthy nontribal adults (50 males + 50 females). All individuals selected were aged between 25 and 40 years, considering the fact that the ossification of almost all the bones in our body is completed by the age of 25 years and the individual has attended maximum height by this age and that regression of bones starts as early as 40 years. All individuals were without any physical deformities of hand and foot. As age advances, a slow decline in the height was documented. The study was conducted after getting approval from the institutional ethics committee. Informed consent was obtained from individuals before subjecting them to study. The nine parameters were studied, i.e., body height, hand length, foot length, hand length to foot length ratio, hand length and foot length to stature ratio, and correlation between hand length and foot length and between hand length with height and foot length with height. The measurements were recorded in accordance with the International Biological Program Protocol.
Individuals were asked to keep their hands on a white paper with the palm facing upward. A hand tracing was made extending from the styloid process of radius to the styloid process of ulna and line joining these two points termed as the interstyloid line. The distance between the midpoint of the above said interstyloid line and the tip of the middle finger is considered as the length of the hand.
The individuals were asked to stand straight on a calibrated footboard after removing their shoes and socks. The measured distance between the posterior most point of the heel and tip of the second toe, i.e., the anterior most point of the foot was considered as the foot length.
The individuals were made to stand on barefoot in an erect anatomical posture against the wall with the most posterior point of the heel touching the wall. The height was measured from vertex to heel of the foot with the head (Frankfurt horizontal plane). All the anthropometric measurements were taken in centimeters using a calibrated footboard, a stadiometer, and a measuring tape. The measurements were taken by the same persons to ensure uniformity of measurement.
Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software (IBM Inc, New York). The mean, standard deviation, and linear regression equations were calculated. The hand length to foot length ratio was obtained by dividing the mean hand length by the mean foot length and that of the hand and foot length to stature ratio was obtained by dividing the mean of hand length and foot length by the height.
Paired sample t-test was calculated using Graph pad software. Results were considered significant if P < 0.01. The correlation between various dimensions was studied using Pearson’s correlation coefficient.
| Results|| |
In the present study, the height difference between the males and females of both tribal and nontribal groups was found to be extremely statistically significant (P < 0.0001) in which the mean height of tribal males was found to be 168.04 ± 7.8 cm, compared to that of the tribal females which was 156.62 ± 5.47 cm [Table 1] and [Figure 1] and that of the nontribal males was 167.68 ± 5.42 cm and the nontribal females was 159.96 ± 2.97 cm [Table 1] and [Figure 1]. The other parameters like the hand length (right and left) and the foot length (right and left) between the males and females of both the groups were also found to be highly significant [P < 0.0001, [Table 1] and [Table 2]]. The hand length to foot length ratio between the two genders of the tribal group was also statistically significant [P < 0.01, [Table 1]], whereas the same in the nontribal group was not found to be significant with P = 0.4702 [Table 2]. The hand length and foot length to stature ratio was again found to be highly significant among the males and females of the tribal group [P < 0.0001, [Table 1]], but the same parameter was not significant in case of nontribal group [P = 1, [Table 2]]. On comparing the height, the limb dimensions, and limb ratios between the males of the tribal and the nontribal group, none of the above parameters was significant [Table 3]. However, when compared between the females of the tribal and the nontribal group, the height (P = 0.01), the foot length (P = 0.01), and the hand and foot length to stature ratio (P < 0.0001) were found to be statistically significant, whereas the difference between the hand length and the hand length to foot length ratio (P = 0.10) was not found to be statistically significant [Table 4]. The study showed statistical significance for all the parameters when compared between the male and female group as a whole, except for the ratio between the length of hand and foot to height [P = 1, [Table 5]].
|Figure 1: Average height of male and female in the tribal and nontribal groups|
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|Table 3: Comparison between the parameters of the Tribal and the Non-tribal male groups|
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|Table 4: Comparison between the parameters of the Tribal and the Non-tribal female groups|
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|Table 5: Comparison of parameters between of male and female groups as a whole|
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The observations showed a positive correlation between the hand length and foot length, which was highest in the nontribal female group [r = 0.813, [Table 6]]. A positive correlation was also observed between hand length with height and foot length with height in all the groups with a statistical significance [P < 0.001, [Table 7]]. The highest was noted in the tribal male group which was found to be extremely statistically significant (P < 0.0001), where correlation coefficient (r) = 0.789 between the hand length and height and that between the foot length and height was (r) = 0.7163 [Table 7]. Regression equations were formulated which gave predictive value for the height, hand length, and foot length [Table 6] and [Table 7].
|Table 7: Correlation between hand length (HL) and Height (H) and between foot length (FL) and Height (H)|
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| Discussion|| |
In the present study, some parameters when compared between the males and females of both tribal and nontribal groups were seen to be extremely significant (P < 0.0001), which included height and limb lengths of both sides [Table 1] and [Table 2]. In all the groups, the parameters were seen to be having greater values in males compared to females [Table 5]. This may be due to the early onset of maturity in females. Similar findings of sexual difference in the limb lengths and widths were also reported earlier and that these parameters were larger in the males than in the females.,, The hand length to foot length ratio and the hand length and foot length to stature ratio were found to be extremely statistically significant between the two genders of the tribal group but were not significant in the nontribal group. This probably implies that the tribal males are having significantly higher values of the height and limb dimensions than that of their counterpart females, whereas this disparity is less seen in the nontribal group. In a study by Geetha et al., males were found to have higher mean values for all the studied parameters than females, and the difference was found to be highly significant. Analysis of genetically disparate population by Saxena and Lundy and Feldesman revealed a clear sexual dimorphism, in which women were documented to have lesser hand proportion to height than men.,
On comparing the males of the tribal and the nontribal group, there was no significance of the above parameters [Table 3]. This probably suggests that there is not much difference in the body parameters among the males of the tribal and nontribal group. But in case of females, almost all the parameters between the tribal and the nontribal group were found to be statistically significant, except for the hand length and ratio between hand length to foot length [Table 4]. This probably suggests that females of different ethnic groups have comparatively similar hand lengths, whereas the difference in the stature between the females of the two groups was found to be extremely statistically significant. Krishan and Sharma, 2007, stated that various features of a population could be studied from statures such as nutritional health and genetics.
The observation showed that there existed a positive correlation between the hand length and foot length and between the height with hand length and height with foot length in all the groups with a statistical significance [P < 0.001, [Table 6] and [Table 7]]. Similar studies conducted by Ibegbu et al. showed that prediction of height, age, weight, and body mass index (BMI) could be possible from knowledge of hand length and also there was a significant correlation between hand length and height, weight, age, and BMI in both the sexes. Gauld and Rakhir also observed that the hand length was a reliable means in predicting the height of an individual.
| Conclusion|| |
The current study showed a statistically significant difference in the hand length, foot length, and height when compared between the tribal and nontribal population of North-East India and also between males and females in general. The observation showed a positive correlation between the hand length and with that of the foot length and between the height with hand length and height with foot length in all the studied groups. Hence, it is concluded that if the length of one body part is known, the other could be accurately calculated from the formulated regression equations. This is of immense importance in identifying a person from incomplete skeletal remains and decomposing bodies and especially useful to anthropologists and anatomists.
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Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7]