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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 155-158

Correlation between Stature and Bigonial Diameter of Adults in Uttar Pradesh Population


1 Department of Anatomy, Shaheed Hasan Khan Mewati Government Medical College, Nuh, Haryana, India
2 Department of Anatomy, Autonomous State Medical College, Shahjahanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Submission22-Aug-2020
Date of Decision09-Sep-2020
Date of Acceptance30-Oct-2020
Date of Web Publication7-Dec-2020

Correspondence Address:
Neha Yadav
H. NO. 818, Sector 22 Pocket-B, Gurugram - 122 015, Harayana
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/NJCA.NJCA_15_20

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  Abstract 


The aim of the study was to find out the stature from bigonial diameter of Uttar Pradesh population and to compare our study with similar previous studies. Methods: This study was held on 300 medical students, including both males and females age between 18 and 25 years in the Anatomy Department, Sarojini Naidu Medical College, Agra. Anthropometric rod was used to measure stature and digital vernier caliper was used to measure bigonial diameter. Results: There is a moderate degree of positive correlation between stature and bigonial diameter. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to be 0.350 and P value calculated was <0.0001, which is statistically significant. Conclusion: We draw the inference from the present study that like other part of the human body, bigonial diameter can be utilized for the approximation of stature when facial remains are escorted for medicolegal assessment. In this study, regression equation was developed with good reliability and applicability and can be used in maxillofacial and facial reconstructive surgeries.

Keywords: Anthropometric rod, bigonial diameter, digital vernier caliper, stature


How to cite this article:
Yadav N, Chandra P. Correlation between Stature and Bigonial Diameter of Adults in Uttar Pradesh Population. Natl J Clin Anat 2020;9:155-8

How to cite this URL:
Yadav N, Chandra P. Correlation between Stature and Bigonial Diameter of Adults in Uttar Pradesh Population. Natl J Clin Anat [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Jan 23];9:155-8. Available from: http://www.njca.info/text.asp?2020/9/4/155/302565




  Introduction Top


In this globe, we all human beings belong to the same species that is Homo sapiens. No two persons are alike in their appraisal personality completely. In addition, each individual is prone to undergo changes at different stages of life from birth to demise, both in health and in disease. Complex mating pattern of human population often result in fascinating dissimilarity in bodily form and proportions.

Anthropometry is a methodized applied technique that conveys us assessable proportions of the human body and skeleton. While overseeing a medico-legal autopsy in such cases, the anthropologist is frequently asked to remark regarding the recognition of the deceased. For personal identification, body height is one of the important criteria which assist in the examination process and supply useful clues to the investigation agencies.

The assessor is competent to quantify the gradation of difference or similarity with measurement data. Assessment of height is a principal tool in medicolegal investigation, mainly in undisclosed, unspecified, extremely decomposed, broken, and disfigured human remains. For capsulizing the investigation process, height is one of the principal criterias for confidential identification and in this fashion, it allows functional hint to the investigation agencies.

In medicolegal and anthropological work, assessment of human skeletal remains the most dominant and critical problem for determining the age and sex of dead individuals. This is mainly important when only skeletal remains are present. In the dead, the difficulty arises when sex is to be decided based on a few skeletal remains. The reconstruction of man’s part after death would be impossible without bones. Skeletal remains provides a major proof of human age and sex following death. The teeth and craniofacial skeleton are preeminent conserved parts of human remains. Mandible is the strongest bone in the facial skeleton; thus is the foremost conserved after death. In mass disasters such as air crashes, wars, railway accidents, and floods it is the medicolegal job to work with unknown variables to describe the skeletal remains and provide identification.[1],[2]

Hence, our study is based on finding out the correlation between stature and bigonial diameter and establishment of stature from bigonial diameter in normal adults in the Uttar Pradesh population.


  Materials and Methods Top


The study was conducted on 300 medical students of which 164 were males and 136 were females of age group between 18 years and 25 years of Sarojini Naidu medical college, Agra, Uttar Pradesh. The medical students were healthy and without any cranial and facial deformities. Detailed medical history was taken and clinical examination of all students was supervised to preclude out significant disease or deformity that could exert influence on the general or bony growth.

Informed written consent was taken from each medical student before participating in the study.

Inclusion criteria

  1. All the medical students were apparently healthy and without any pathological fractures, developmental disturbances of the mandible, like deformed and edentulous mandible, inflammation of the face, traumatic injuries, and surgery
  2. The medical students of the age group between 18 years and 25 years were included in our study as completion of skeleton growth occurs by this year of age
  3. The medical students were taken from only one specific social group, i.e., Uttar Pradesh medical students.


Anthropometric methodology

The stature and bigonial diameter of each subject was measured by using vernier caliper and anthropometric rod in centimeters.

The measurements

Stature

It was calculated as the vertical distance from the vertex to the floor and it was measured by using the anthropometric rod to the nearest 0.1 cm with students standing erect bare feet against the anthropometric rod. Their buttocks and upper part of the back in contact with anthropometric rod upright. The palms of their hands were turned inward and fingers pointing downward. The student should align their head in the Frankfurt plane. The adjustable anthropometric rod was brought in correspondence with the vertex in the median sagittal plane [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Measurement of stature by anthropometric rod in cms

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Bigonial diameter

It is the maximum breadth of the lower jaw, between two gonion points (gonion is the most posterior, inferior and laterally situated point on the angles of the mandible) on the angle of mandible taken with the help of digital vernier caliper [Figure 2].[3]
Figure 2: Measurement of bigonial diameter in cms

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All measurements were taken in centimeters. To minimize subjective errors all measurements were taken three times and then the mean was taken. Data thus collected were entered into Microsoft Excel sheet 2007 and was subjected for statistical analysis. Statistical analyses were performed by using computer software (SPSS Software Version 22). The regression formula was derived based on different measurements.


  Results Top


Mean stature was significantly more in males (170.7 ± 6.93 cm) as compared to females (160.37 ± 7.53 cm). Significant difference observed in stature with sex [Table 1].
Table 1: Comparison of stature in males and females

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[Table 1] shows that the mean of bigonial diameter in males is 11.01 ± 1.03 cm. However, the mean value of bigonial diameter in the female is 10.38 ± 0.84 cm. Gender difference with respect to mean bigonial diameter was found to be significantly higher in males than females (P < 0.0001). There is a moderate degree of positive correlation between Stature and Bigonial diameter. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to be 0.350 and P value calculated was <0.0001, which is statistically significant.

[Table 2] shows, that in the present study, mean stature is close to the Nagpur population in males and close to the Chennai population in females. Maximum mean stature is observed in the USA population in male and female, and minimum mean stature is observed in the South African population
Table 2: Comparison of bigonial diameter in males and females

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Regression equation for our study was calculated on SPSS Version 22. Regression equation was found out for the determination of stature for the present study carried out in Uttar Pradesh population is as follows:

stature (in cm) = 131.73 + (3.13 X bigonal diameter in cm)

The value of the mean of bigonial diameter for the Uttar Pradesh population is 10.68 cm [Table 1].


  Discussion Top


If facial remains are available, then by using bigonial diameter, stature can be calculated in the Uttar Pradesh population. Facial measurement help us in recognition of person in forensic medicine, in doing plastic surgery, in orthodontics, in archaeology, in hairstyle designing and examination of the differences between races and ethnicities. Facial anthropometry is helpful in identifying variations in facial shape in a specified population. In addition to these for treating congenital or posttraumatic facial disfigurements, surgeons require access to craniofacial data based on accurate anthropometric measurements.[19]

[Table 2] shows, that in the present study, mean stature is close to the Nagpur population in males and close to the Chennai population in females. Maximum mean stature is observed in the USA population in male and female, and minimum mean stature is observed in the South African population.

[Table 3] shows that, in the present study, mean bigonial diameter is close to northwest Indian population in males and close to Haryanvi Baniyas in females. Maximum mean morphological facial length is observed in the Haryanvi Baniyas population in males and in females, it is maximum in our study, and minimum mean bigonial diameter is observed in North Indian Kolis population in males, and in females, it is minimum in Indo Mauritian [Table 4].
Table 3: Mean stature of the present study and previous studies in males and females

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Table 4: Mean bigonial diameter of previous study and present studies in males and females

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  Conclusion Top


The results indicate that one can estimate stature from bigonial diameter in the Uttar Pradesh population, where facial remains are brought for medicolegal examination. The finding of our study indicates that bigonial diameter has a positive and moderate degree of correlation (as Pearson’s correlation coefficient = 0.350). The regression formula for present study is: stature (in cm) = 131.73 + (3.13 X bigonal diameter in cm).

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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Sahni D, Sanjeev , Sharma P, Harjeet , Kaur G, Aggarwal A. Estimation of stature from facial measurements in northwest Indians. Leg Med (Tokyo) 2010;12:23-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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Introduction
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