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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 169-172

Trends and Applications of Body Donation Program in Mahakaushal Region


1 Professor, Department of Anatomy, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Medical College, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Medical College, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India
3 Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Medical College, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India

Date of Submission29-Jul-2020
Date of Decision06-Sep-2020
Date of Acceptance07-Oct-2020
Date of Web Publication7-Dec-2020

Correspondence Address:
Mayura Setiya
Department of Anatomy, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Medical College, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/NJCA.NJCA_56_20

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  Abstract 


Introduction: Body donation or body endowment is defined as a desired program of donating one’s body after death for progress of medical research and as a segment of medical education. In recent times, attitude, knowledge, and awareness have played a pivotal role in changing the trends of body donation. Methods: Data pertaining to 64 voluntary donated cadavers were studied over a period of 13 years in our anatomy department. Age, sex, and other data were noted and analyzed statistically. Results: An increasing trend in the profile of body donation was observed between 2015 and 2017. More male cadavers (60.9%) were donated than females (39.1%). The youngest cadaver was male (17 years), whereas the oldest cadaver was female (96 years). Cadavers were generally elderly, with an average age of 72.9 years. Conclusion: The present study is a forward step in field of database study of trends of increasing body donation which forms a key tool for anatomists and provides students and surgeons with exceptional chance to study the structure of human body. The present-day trend of body donation in our institute is sufficient to meet the demands of cadavers as per Medical Council of India (MCI) rules.

Keywords: Anatomy act, body bequest, donated cadavers


How to cite this article:
Agrawal NL, Setiya M, Gour KK. Trends and Applications of Body Donation Program in Mahakaushal Region. Natl J Clin Anat 2020;9:169-72

How to cite this URL:
Agrawal NL, Setiya M, Gour KK. Trends and Applications of Body Donation Program in Mahakaushal Region. Natl J Clin Anat [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Jan 16];9:169-72. Available from: http://www.njca.info/text.asp?2020/9/4/169/302568




  Introduction Top


Body donation is a generous act and plays a pivotal role in helping medical, dental, and physiotherapy students to study the intricate anatomy of human body. By dissecting the cadavers, doctors and medical researchers develop their surgical skills.[1] Anatomy is the keystone of medical education, and understanding of the subject and research work in anatomy is mainly based on cadaveric dissection.[2],[3] The sound knowledge and experience gained through dissection are superior to all the other aids of learning the structure of human body.[2],[4] Cadavers remain the principal tool in medical and dental teaching and for research, as the detailed knowledge obtained through dissection of the human body is a crucial part of learning anatomy.[2],[4] Present-day imaging techniques may lead to a greater level of understanding of the disease, but recognition of the normal structure of human body is attained best by cadaveric dissection.[3] Although cadaveric dissection for the purpose of comprehensive knowledge of human body is exceptionally important for medical education, the number of people who nominate to endow their bodies remains low.[5],[6],[7] Most important reason for fewer number of body donation in Indian scenario is scarcity of perception regarding the obliging and ideal act of body donation. Another major obstacle in body donation is spirituality and pious beliefs.[5] With the blooming of medical establishments in the country, there is an inflated demand of cadavers, and countless ideas have been voiced to boost the supply.[1],[2] In India, the Anatomy Act was validated in 1949 for the delivery of unidentified bodies of deceased persons to medical establishments for the purpose of anatomical assessment through dissection.[2],[8],[9] Due to the fundamental and amplified needs in medical education and research, the need for body donation is of utmost importance. This paucity cannot be restored with unclaimed bodies alone, because unclaimed bodies are no longer able to meet the inflated demand of cadavers. There came the doctrine of “deh-daan” emphasizing body donation as a part of one’s own free will.[4] Through voluntary body donation, one can pay back to society and gives a student an opportunity to gain an understanding of subject that can have an impact on the future generations.[2] Medical institutions use whole embalmed bodies to teach anatomy to a medical student which is the first building block in the career of medical students. It helps medical students in learning various relations of human anatomic structures and growth of psychomotor skills by dissection.[5],[10],[11] Medical education in India is under strict regulation of the National Medical Council (NMC). In the curriculum of 1st year of MBBS, students are supposed to study anatomy through cadaveric dissection. In our institution, there is annual admission of 180 students for undergraduate course and 5 students/year for postgraduate comes, i.e., M. S. which requires a constant supply of cadavers to promote anatomy teaching as per NMC rules.[12] Furthermore, various cadaveric workshops are conducted every year in neurosurgery and ENT department of our institution to help surgeons and others to experiment with innovative surgical skills as an adjunct to surgery to enhance surgical techniques.[3],[8],[10] Cadavers are also needed to be dissected along different planes to be displayed as a museum specimen in the department. The analytical studies show that there is a ratio of 1:20 (cadaver: student), normal being 1:10 (cadaver: student).[4]

Disciplined efforts are needed to uplift the awareness about body donation and to alter the attitude of society toward donation. For the creation of positive perception, we need the help of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to organize the body donation camps. These camps should be bilateral, and people should be answered completely till the level of their personal satisfaction.[4] Sadhu et al., in 2013, made an attempt to study the ongoing trend of body bequest in West Bengal. and Goyal and Gupta, in 2011, tried to study the profile of body donation in Punjab.[3],[13] Bose et al., in 2017, also made an attempt to study the increasing trend of body donation in the last few years as a result of awareness of the importance of body donation, as a result of constant effort of NGOs in Indore, Madhya Pradesh (MP).[8] Still, a lot of possibilities remain to be explored on the trend of body donation going on different regions of the country and also to assess the provoking factors responsible for body donation so as to apply these factors on different regions of the country so as to increase this gracious act of body donation and serve a noble cause for the society in which we live. The paucity of data concerned with body donation is a hindrance in this way. The present study is a forward step in field of database study of trends of increasing body donation which forms a key tool for anatomists and provides students and surgeons with an exceptional window of opportunity to study the structure of human body.


  Materials and Methods Top


A retrospective review of cadavers received in the Department of Anatomy, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Medical College Medical College, Jabalpur, through voluntary body donation was studied during the period between 2007 and 2019, based on the documents available in the department maintained at the time of body donation by the relatives of the deceased. Most of the voluntary body donations received by our institution belonged to Jabalpur district and sometimes from neighboring ones such as Mandla, Satna, Katni, and Narsinghpur. There was no barrier of age, sex, caste, religion, or socioeconomic status to prevent an individual from body donation. There is no upper age limit for voluntary body donation, and people with existing medical conditions were permitted to donate their bodies. Bodies of patients who died of cancer, HIV, and other contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and hepatitis B and C were not accepted. Extremely obese, emaciated, and decomposed bodies did not fit into the criteria of acceptance of body donation. If the cause of death was an unnatural and required autopsy, then such bodies were not accepted. The recorded data were then tabulated and statistically analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2007 software.


  Results Top


The findings of the study are depicted in [Table 1] and [Graph 1]. An increasing trend in the profile of body donation was observed from 2016. Total cadavers donated during a period of consecutive 13 years were 64 (100%). More male cadavers (60.9%) were donated than females (39.1%). The youngest cadaver was male (17 years), whereas the oldest cadaver was female (96 years). Cadavers were generally elderly, with an average age of 72.9 years.
Table 1: Cadaver information record of 13 consecutive years

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  Discussion Top


Body donation is a generous and charitable act for those who want to give something back to society by making use of their body even after death. It is being practiced for many decades for the welfare of humankind. However, it has gained attention for the last few years.[4] Disciplined efforts are needed to amplify the awareness about body donation and to alter the attitude of society and also to serve a noble cause through body donation.[5] Despite the fact that body donation is of utmost importance for medical education as well as for the progress of medical science, cadaveric donation remains suboptimal.[4] The government should motivate and promote voluntary body donation, and people should be educated so as to create a positive perception among them about the importance of body donation in order to ensure that there is a constant supply of cadavers in medical establishments.[2]

The study of human body is very intricate as it consists of many variations. These variants are of significant importance for surgeons, which if left unnoted can lead to difficult situations while doing surgery on a patient. Anatomical complications may be prevented if the surgeon has a thorough understanding of anatomy which can only be attained by dissecting sufficient number of cadavers and here lies the importance of body donation.[3],[8] NGOs can serve as a platform where esteemed people from all walks of life can take a vow to donate their bodies for progress of medical science, thereby also motivating the common people to do the same.

In our institution, most of the cadavers donated have either pledged earlier when they were alive and the rest were those whose bodies were donated after their death without any objection from the next of kin. Bodies donated had a natural death and were free from any contagious disease and cancer and fitted into the criteria of acceptance of body donation. All the faculties of the department were aware of the procedure and legal formalities of body donation so as to avoid any delay in accepting dead bodies due to lack of documents. However, sometimes relatives faced inconveniences related to death certificate in case of natural death of the deceased at their residence. In such instances, doctors refused to give death certificate stating the cause of death which was the basic requirement at the time of body donation. Sometimes, they faced problem related to transport of the body of the deceased, especially when it was to be transported from neighboring areas, because our institution provided the ambulance if the deceased belonged to Jabalpur and if the relatives found issues in transporting to our institution. To keep body donation as a, a gracious and charitable act and one-time opportunity to make a valuable gift to humanity and not a dumping ground for getting rid of dead bodies’ strict protocol was followed in our department so as to avoid legal complications. Legal procedures included written information to nearby police station. For accepting the bodies, appropriate death certificates stating the cause of death issued by a registered medical practitioners is made compulsory. Identification document of the blood relative and one identification document (Aadhar card, voter’s card, and PAN card) of the deceased person were mandatory. On the basis of body donation certificate issued by us and death certificate issued by the doctor, relatives can approach the municipal center to get the municipal death certificate. Information regarding body donation program and list of documents required for the same is displayed in the department.

The present study showed a gradual increase in the number of bodies donated from 2015 to 2019. The underlying reason for increasing trend of body donation could be the body donation campaigns spreading awareness, role of media newspapers in encouraging the common people for endowing their bodies. Relative’s narrative experiences after donating bodies of the deceased had a mixed feeling that either stimulated or curbed the grieving process. Sometimes, the process of body donation imitated a desire to move away from death as a depressing experience and instead turned the event into something more positive and helpful for future generations. Relatives also perceived the donation as giving some further meaning to life of the deceased and, in some ways, helped them rationalize the death. Many NGOs are also working meticulously to serve this noble cause for the advancement of medical science and welfare of humankind. In our institute, two to three such enlightenment campaigns were organized by Jain religious leaders for the motivation of Jain community to donate their bodies after death to serve the community in the year 2016 in Madhiya Jain pilgrimage center in collaboration with our department. Furthermore, the followers of Sant Rampal Das organized an awareness program in 2018 in our department where hundreds of followers filled the form for voluntary body donation. One more effort taken by our department in this line is the organization of ceremonies involving the relatives of voluntary donors for paying respect and tribute to generosity exhibited by body donors to mask their sorrow of losing their loved ones and to make them feel proud to have earned appreciation that they deserve. We have also created a “deh-daan mahadaan” unit where photographs of voluntary donors are put on the wall to pay tribute to their generous act toward the society.

In our study, the average age was 72.9 years, while in Sadhu et al. in West Bengal, it was 62.57 years. In Goyal and Gupta study in Punjab, 63.04% of bodies were of the age group 61–90 years, while in our study, 53.13% of cadavers were in 76–90 years of age group. Earlier, there was just the number of cadavers as needed according to NMC rules, but in recent times due to increasing trend in body donation, we have overcome the situation and now we are having surplus cadavers for dissection. Moreover, some cadavers, viscerae, specimens, and sections are donated to other upcoming medical colleges of Mahakaushal region.


  Conclusion Top


The present study is a forward step in the field of database study of trends of increasing body donation which forms a key tool for anatomists and provides students and surgeons with exceptional chance to study the structure of human body. The present study showed a gradual increase in the number of bodies donated from 2015 to 2019 with an average age of 72.9 years and particularly in the age group between 76 and 90 years. The reason for gradual increase in the body donation could be the body donation campaigns spreading awareness, role of media, newspapers in encouraging the common man for donating their bodies.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Patnaik VV. Editorial. J AnatSoc India 2002;50:143-4.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Ajita R, Singh YI. Body donation and its relevance in anatomy learning-a review. JASI 2007;56:44-7.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Sadhu A, Meyur R, Kundu B, Biswas S, Chakraborty S. Trends in body donation for medical education: 10 year retrospective study. Indian J Basic Appl Med Res 2013;2:1089-92.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Dope Santoshkumar A, Bhusari AP, Kulkarni PR, Diwan CV. Body donation-The life after death. MedPulse - International Medical Journal 2015;2:216-20.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Rokade SA, Bahetee BH. Body donation in India: A review. Med J West India 2013;41:36-41.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
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Sehirli US, Saka E, Sarikaya O. Attitudes of Turkish anatomists towards cadaver donation. Clin Anat 2004;17:677-81.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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Boulware LE, Ratner LE, Cooper LA, LaVeist TA, Powe NR. Whole body donation for medical science: A population-based study. Clin Anat 2004;17:570-7.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Bose A, Pandit VK, Jehan M, Marko RS. 11 years study of body bequest trends in a Medical college Indore (MP, India). IOSR J Dent Med Sci 2017;16:130-3.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Subramanian BV. Law in relation to medical men. In: Modi ‘Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology. 22nd ed.. New Delhi: Butterworth; 1999. p. 724-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Burnprasert T. The new potential of surgical training: Surgical training centre. Chula Med J 1998;42:413-5.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Agthong S, Wiwanitkit V. Cadaver donation: A retrospective review at the King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2002;33 Suppl 3:166-7.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Medical Council of India Regulations on Graduate Medical Education. The Gazette of India, Extraordinary, Part III, Section 4, NMC/MCI-35(1)/98-Medi.(ii)123627, Oct 2020, p 63 (Internet). National Medical Council (NMC): 2020. Available from https://www.nmc.org.in/rules-regulations/minimum-requirements-for-annual-m-b-b-s-admissions-regulation2020. [Last accessed on 2020 Nov 27].  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Goyal PK, Gupta M. Study of the profile of cadavers donated to Anatomy Department of a private medical College of Punjab for medical research vis body donation programme: A first hand experience of five years. J Res Med Educ Ethics 2011;1:176-9.  Back to cited text no. 13
    



 
 
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