|Year : 2021 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 205-208
Histomorphometric study of renal corpuscles of human and goat
Gulam Rasool1, Pratima Jaiswal2, Aarushi Jain3, Shiv K Sharma1
1 Final Year Resident, Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Kota, Rajasthan, India
2 Professor and Head, Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Kota, Rajasthan, India
3 Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Kota, Rajasthan, India
|Date of Submission||31-May-2021|
|Date of Decision||11-Aug-2021|
|Date of Acceptance||02-Sep-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||28-Oct-2021|
1-Ka-27 Vigyan Nagar, Kota, Rajasthan
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: The nephron is the functional and structural unit of the kidney and greatly varies in its structure among different vertebrates; also the formation of nephron shows a variable degree of differences among species. This study was done to compare the size of the renal corpuscle, glomerulus, and urinary space between human and goat kidneys. Methodology: This observational descriptive type of the study was done in the Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Kota from December 2019 to January 2021, after seeking proper approval from the Institutional Review Board and Ethical Committee for the study. Seventy human and 70 goat kidney tissues were taken for this study. The stained sections were studied under light microscopy for the diameter of renal corpuscles and glomeruli were measured in ×400 by MICAPS camera and software attached on microscope. The observed data were analyzed, and calculated by MedCalc software version 20.0.3. Data were subjected to independent sample t-test and results were compared and were considered significant at P < 0.05. Results: The renal corpuscles had the mean greatest and least diameter of 131.57 μ and 131.49 μ in humans. While respective values were 157.95 μ and 142.61 μ in goats. The glomeruli had mean maximum and minimum diameter of 112.80 μ and 111.60 μ in humans and 128.20 μ and 119.59 μ in goats. Mean urinary space distance that was 9.66 μ and 13.19 μ in humans and goats, respectively. Conclusions: The present is useful for anatomists and veterinary doctors, comparative anatomists, anthropologists, and histologists.
Keywords: Glomerulus, renal corpuscle, urinary space
|How to cite this article:|
Rasool G, Jaiswal P, Jain A, Sharma SK. Histomorphometric study of renal corpuscles of human and goat. Natl J Clin Anat 2021;10:205-8
|How to cite this URL:|
Rasool G, Jaiswal P, Jain A, Sharma SK. Histomorphometric study of renal corpuscles of human and goat. Natl J Clin Anat [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 May 23];10:205-8. Available from: http://www.njca.info/text.asp?2021/10/4/205/329502
| Introduction|| |
The kidney is composed millions of tortuous and closely packed uriniferous tubules with connective tissue stroma. Nephron is the functional and structural unit of the kidney which varies in its structure among different vertebrates. There is a remarkable difference in the sizes of juxtamedullary and cortical renal corpuscles of horse, pig, rat, and dog unlike goat, sheep, and human kidneys. The glomerulus formed by a tuft of capillaries surrounded by an impervious capsule named as Bowman's capsule. Glomerulus surrounded by visceral layer and parietal layer bordering the renal corpuscle which encloses urinary space and is contiguous with the proximal convoluted tubule of the nephron. Very few studies have been conducted about the normal dimensions of the microscopic structure of the mammalian kidney. Hence, the objectives of this study were to determine and compare the size of the renal corpuscle, glomerulus, and urinary space between human and goat kidneys that adds to information about their progressive adaptation in regards to the environment, water intake, and their vascularity.
| Subjects and Methods|| |
Setting and study design
This observational descriptive type of study was done in the Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Kota from December 2019 to January 2021, after seeking proper approval from the Institutional Review Board and Ethical Committee the study through letter no. 1804 dated December 16, 19 no. 114.
At 95% confidence interval and 80% beta error, the sample size was calculated using OpenEPi software. Hence, 70 human and 70 goat tissues were taken near the hilum at the cortical area of kidneys. The human renal tissues were obtained from the Department of Anatomy and Department of Forensic Medicine Government Medical College, Kota, and goat specimens from local slaughterhouse in the city. All samples taken were devoid of any pathology or damage. Human kidney samples were collected from both the genders of age more than 25 years and goat more than 1 year. Samples of 3–4 mm were fixed in 10% formalin solution then dehydration was done with ascending grade of alcohol, clearing with xylene, and then embedded in paraffin. Paraffin blocks were cut in 5 μm thickness and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, stain [Figure 1] and [Figure 2]. The stained sections were studied under light microscopy for diameters of renal corpuscles and glomeruli. The greatest and least diameter were measured in ×400 with the help of MICAPS camera and software attached with microscope [Figure 3]. Ten fields at random were selected and 10 corpuscles from each field were measured at random by point counting technique. Maximum and minimum diameters of renal corpuscles and glomeruli were measured. The average diameter was then calculated.
|Figure 3: Showing dimensions of renal corpuscle L1 =Maximum diameter of glomerulus(μ) L2 =Maximum diameter of corpuscle(μ) L3 = Minimum diameter of glomerulus(μ) L4 = Minimum diameter of corpuscle (μ)|
Click here to view
Parameters were calculated as follows:
Average diameter = (maximum diameter + minimum diameter) ÷ 2
Average Urinary space = (average renal corpuscular diameter – average glomerular diameter)/2
The observed data were analyzed, and calculated by MedCalc software version 20.0.3. Data were subjected to independent sample t-test and results were compared and were considered significant at P < 0.05.
| Results|| |
As depicted in [Table 1], the renal corpuscle of goat was bigger than human significantly. Renal corpuscles had a maximum diameter ranged from 90.54 to 179.68 microns, with an average of 131.49 ± 20.24 microns and minimum diameter ranged from 90.09 to 166.86 microns, with an average of 131.57 ± 18.69 microns in humans. The maximum diameter of goat renal corpuscles varied from 100 to 225.23 microns, (mean was 157.95 ± 25.96 microns) and minimum diameter ranged from 94.81 to 150.89 microns, (mean was 142.61 ± 27.01 microns).
As depicted in [Table 2], the glomeruli had a maximum diameter ranged from 80.63 microns to 160.05 microns, with an average of 112.80 ± 18.89 microns and minimum diameter ranged from 78.83 microns to 147.3 microns, with an average of 111.60 ± 16.37 microns in humans. The maximum diameter of the glomerulus of goat varied from 80.25 to 178.08 microns, with an average of 128.20 ± 19.92 microns and minimum diameter ranged from 71.26 microns to 128.1 microns, with an average of 119.59 ± 24.98 microns.
Mean diameters of renal corpuscle were 131.53 ± 15.66 μ and 150.28 ± 21.91 μ in human and goat, respectively while respective mean diameters of glomerulus were 112.20 ± 13.94 μ and 123.90 ± 19.31 μ. Mean urinary space was calculated by subtraction of glomerular diameter from corpuscular diameter then divided by two, as 9.66 ± 3.18 and 13.19 ± 5.01 μ in human and goat, respectively. Hence, the diameter of glomeruli, as well as urinary space of goat was more than human as shown in [Table 2].
A significant P (<0.05) was observed in diameters of renal corpuscles and glomeruli.
Pearson correlation coefficient when calculated between the average renal corpuscle size and average urinary space was −0.13 and −0.24 in humans and goats, respectively. This clearly showed a negative correlation between the two parameters.
| Discussion|| |
Kidneys of both humans and goats were bean shaped and reddish brown. In goat, both kidneys were smooth externally without any superficial lobulation but in human after the removal of capsule, slight lobulation on the surface were seen. All the gross dimensions such as weight, volume, width, length and thickness were more in human kidneys as compared to that of goats. The lumen of the proximal convoluted tubule of the human kidney is small with more marked brush border than the goat kidney as shown in [Figure 1] and [Figure 3], respectively. Similarly, the lumen of distal convoluted tubule in the human kidney is also less than that of the goat kidney.
As depicted in [Table 3], values were measured by Johora et al. of human glomeruli to be 140.6 μ which is higher from the present study. Kotyk T measured glomerular diameter in rats that was 97.40 μ.
|Table 3: Comparison of diameters of glomeruli and renal corpuscles of different mammals|
Click here to view
Mbassa(1988) observed kidneys of B. indicus (Zebu cattle)and B. tarsus under light microscope and instituted that the smaller renal corpuscles of zebu with smaller glomerular filtration surface and low renal blood flow were responsible for low glomerular rate and urinary flow, enabling their kidneys to retain more water than those of B. tarsus.
Ladukar, et al. presents histological structure of the kidneys of a black bear (Ursus Americanus) and established that the average transverse diameter of the corpuscles was 134 while the vertical diameter was 98 μ. In the present study, average diameter of renal corpuscle (150.28 μ), glomeruli (123.90 μ), and urinary space (13.19 μ) of the goat also obtained.
Tiwari and Swarup gave a detailed account of the histology of the nephron in the kidney of the Indian buffalo. They reported that the cortical renal corpuscles and glomeruli were larger in diameter than the juxta medullary ones; similarly, cranial renal corpuscles and glomeruli were larger than the middle or caudal ones. Data of SamuelT were very high as 201 ± 28 μ.
Data of glomerular diameter obtained by Rehan S (110 μ) in camel were comparable with the present study (112.20 μ) in humans. Ommer and Mariappa reported the histology of the kidneyof the Indian buffalo (Bos bubalis). Their observation indicated that the renal corpuscles and glomeruli of the buffalo kidneys were smaller than those of ox and horse. The cortical renalcorpuscles and glomeruli were larger than the juxta medullary ones.
Trautmann and Fiebiger while describing the detailed topography and microscopic structure of renal corpuscles and tubules in the kidney of domestic animals, instigated that the kidney was subdivided into cortical and medullary substances.The medulla projected into the renal pelvis or calyces with one or several papillae.
As data on the study of goat is insufficient, our study is benchmark for the veterinary doctors, zoologist for betterunderstanding of the histology of renal corpuscles, glomeruli,and urinaryspace as the data on urinary space is exploredonly in this present study. Furthermore, anegative correlationbetween average renal corpuscle size and average urinary space depicted that for a large renal corpuscle urinary spacedecreases which might affect glomerular filtration rate thoughit also depends on diet, environment, arterial blood flow, and pressure.
Limitation of this study was its limited sample size, gender, and age-wise histomorphological differentiation was not done which might affect its applicability. The local breed of goat was studied, so the data may vary according to geographical and environmental conditions.
| Conclusions|| |
The results of the present study and their comparison with other studies showed some disparity may be because of different genetics, ethnics, and environmental factors and also may be due to different methods adopted to measure these parameters. The present study is helpful to know about the span of glomerulus and renal corpuscle of human and goat kidneys and is informative for anatomists as well as veterinary doctors, comparative anatomists, anthropologists, and histologists. This study also provides an insight about the vascularity and water metabolism of the mammals which can be correlated to their glomerular size and urinary space which may be useful for veterinary doctors as well as medical students.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Datta AK. The Essentials of Human Anatomy: Thorax, Abdomen and Pelvis. 10th
ed., Vol. 2. Lenin Saranee Kolkata: Current Books International; 2018. p. 252-3.
Maurya H, Kumar T, Kumar S. Anatomical and physiological similarities of kidney in different experimental animals used for basic studies. J Clin Exp Nephrol 2018;3:1-6.
Brown AL Jr. The structure of the nephron. Med Clin North Am 1966;50:927-35.
Eroschenko VP. Difiore's Atlas of Histology with Functional Correlations. 13th
ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer; 2017. p. 429.
Al-Jebori JG, Ahmed MS, Al-Badri A, Jassim BA. Study the anatomical and histomorphological description of the kidney in adult white rabbits female ″ New Zealand strain ″. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;3:40-51.
Johora F, Nurunnabi AS, Shahriah S, Ahmed R, Ara S. Histomorphometric study of glomeruli of the kidney in Bangladeshi population. Bangladesh Soc Physiol2014;9:11-6.
Kotyk T, Dey N, Ashour AS, Balas-Timar D, Chakraborty S, Ashour AS, et al
. Measurement of glomerulus diameter and Bowman's space width of renal albino rats. 2016;126:143-53.
Mbassa GK. Comparative histology of the kidney of Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle. AnatHistolEmbryol1988;17:157-63.
Ladukar NO, Ladukar ON, Khanvilkar AV, Kulkarni MD. Histomorphological observations on kidneys of black bear. Indian Vet J 2006;83:1300-1.
Tiwari GP, Swarup H. Histology of nephron in the kidney of Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Indian J Ani Sci 1977;47:79-84.
Samuel T, Hoy WE, Douglas-Denton R, Hughson MD, Bertram JF. Applicability of the glomerular size distribution coefficient in assessing human glomerular volume: The Weibel and Gomez method revisited. J Anat2007;210:578-82.
Rehan S, Qureshi AS. Microscopic evaluation of the heart, kidneys and adrenal glands of one-humped camel calves (Camelus dromedarius) using semiautomated image analysis system. J Camel Prac Res 2006;13:123-7.
Ommer PA, Mariappa D. Histological observations on the kidney of the Indian buffalo (Bos bubalis). Indian Vet J 1970;47:832-7.
Trautmann A, Fiebiger J. Fundamentals of the Histology of the Domestic Animals. Ithaca, New York: Rev., Print, Comstock Publishing Associates; 1957. p. 245-51.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]