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   Table of Contents - Current issue
October-December 2020
Volume 9 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 133-175

Online since Monday, December 7, 2020

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Reduction of Non-MBBS Teachers in Medical Institutions - A Widely Appreciated Decree of National Medical Commission Highly accessed article p. 133
Kumar Satish Ravi
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Innovative Method of Teaching Embryology Using Three-Dimensional Playdough Model Construction: A Constructivist Teaching p. 135
Manjula Patil
Background: Major hurdle in teaching and understanding embryology is the lack of three-dimensional (3D) orientation. Thus, understanding of the embryology is left to the imagination of students which is highly subjective and associated with very short recall memory. The objectives of the present study was to compare two advanced teaching tools (animated videos and 3D embryology model construction using playdough) to teach general embryology and secondarily to elucidate the usefulness of playdough for model construction. Methods: Forty 1st-year medical students were divided into two groups (V and P) of twenty students each. General embryology was taught to Group V (Video) using 3D animated videos, whereas Group P (playdough) constructed 3D models using playdough. A prevalidated questionnaire containing twenty MCQs was administered on 0 day, 15th day, and 30th day for both the groups. Focus group discussions were conducted to know about the educational tool used for teaching. The same process was repeated after 3 months by crossing over of groups. Results: We observed a reduction of test scores over 1 month in both the groups, but reduction was less in Group P (playdough), indicating good recall memory. When crossing over was done, test scores were better for both the groups indicating the reinforcement by two teaching tools. Many students felt model construction using playdough was enjoyable and could remember things for a longer time. Conclusions: Thus, model construction promotes active learning and provides 3D orientation of various dynamic developmental changes of embryology with good recall memory. Playdough can be an excellent material for model construction.
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Morpho-Histological Study of Placentae from Pregnancies Complicated by Anemia p. 141

Background: The placenta is an important organ that acts as a conduit for transporting substances from the mother to the fetus and vice versa. It performs many functions and is intimately related to both the mother and the fetus. Anemia is a leading disorder of pregnancy and is seen to effect >65% of pregnant women in India. It is also a known cause of intra-uterine growth retardation, preterm deliveries, low-birth-weight deliveries, etc. Objective: The aim is to study and compare the morphometric and histological changes seen in placentae from normal and anemic mothers. Methods: This study was done in the Department of Anatomy of Shri Ram Murti Smarak Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India. One hundred and fifty placentae were collected, 75 each from normal and anemic mothers. A thorough morphometric and histological study of the placentae was done, and the results were recorded. Results: It was observed that the mean weight, diameter, circumference, and chorionic plate area of the placentae from anemic mothers was significantly reduced in comparison to the controls. Histological study showed that there was a significant increase in pathological changes such as syncytial knots, fibrinoid necrosis, calcification, and medial coat proliferation of blood vessels in samples obtained from placentae of anemic mothers in comparison to the controls. Conclusion: It was concluded from this study that maternal anemia has significant consequences on the developing placenta. These morphometric and microscopic changes in placental structure can in turn reduce its function, thus having an adverse effect on fetal outcome.
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Comparison of Height, Hand Length and Foot Length between the Tribal and the Non tribal population of North East India p. 146
Manumati Munglang, Debabani Bora, Rajat Dutta Roy, Anuradha Hazarika Medhi
Background: Estimation of body parameters is an important part of human anthropology and forensic science. Aims: To compare the height, hand length and foot length between the tribal and non-tribal population of North-east India and also to find the correlation between the hand length, foot length and height. Methods: Measurements were taken from a total of 200 healthy adults of which 100 (50 males + 50 females) belonging to the tribal community and another 100 (50 males+50 females) belonging to the non-tribal community. Height, hand and foot length were measured and their mean and standard deviation were calculated. Hand length to foot length ratio, hand length and foot length to height ratio and the correlation between the hand length and foot length and hand length to height and foot length to height were studied in all the groups. Result: All the studied parameters showed extremely statistical significance (P < 0.0001) when compared between the tribal and the non-tribal group and also between the males and the females of both the groups. There was a significant positive correlation between hand length, foot length and height in all the groups. Conclusion: From the present study it is concluded that if the length of one parameter is known, the other could be accurately calculated from the regression equations.
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Anatomical Study of Accessory Head of Flexor Pollicis Longus and Its Clinical Significance p. 151

Background: Cases of nerve entrapment are commonly seen in medical practice. The flexor pollicis longus muscle of the front of the forearm sometimes may have an accessory head. The accessory head of flexor pollicis longus muscle (AHFPL) may compress the anterior interosseus nerve (AIN) to cause weakness of the deep muscles of the front of the forearm. The aim of the present study is to find the incidence of AHFPL and to identify its structural relationships to the median nerve and AIN. Methods: A total of sixty upper limbs of thirty embalmed cadavers were dissected and studied for the presence of AHFPL. Parameters studied were incidence of AHFPL, whether it is bilateral or unilateral, its origin and insertion, and its relationship with AIN. Results: AHFPL was found in 16 cadavers (53%). In 7 out of the 16 cadavers (43.75%), AHFPL was bilateral and in 9 out of 16 cadavers (56.25%), AHFPL was unilateral. AIN was located below the AHFPL in 14 cadavers and in 2 cadavers, it was passing above the AHFPL. The nerve supply of AHFPL was through AIN in the 16 cadavers. Conclusion: Knowledge of AHFPL and its relations with AIN may help medical professionals in diagnosis and treatment as this anatomical variation can lead to compression neuropathy.
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Correlation between Stature and Bigonial Diameter of Adults in Uttar Pradesh Population p. 155
Neha Yadav, Prerna Chandra
The aim of the study was to find out the stature from bigonial diameter of Uttar Pradesh population and to compare our study with similar previous studies. Methods: This study was held on 300 medical students, including both males and females age between 18 and 25 years in the Anatomy Department, Sarojini Naidu Medical College, Agra. Anthropometric rod was used to measure stature and digital vernier caliper was used to measure bigonial diameter. Results: There is a moderate degree of positive correlation between stature and bigonial diameter. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to be 0.350 and P value calculated was <0.0001, which is statistically significant. Conclusion: We draw the inference from the present study that like other part of the human body, bigonial diameter can be utilized for the approximation of stature when facial remains are escorted for medicolegal assessment. In this study, regression equation was developed with good reliability and applicability and can be used in maxillofacial and facial reconstructive surgeries.
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Posterior Cruciate Meniscofemoral Complex Morphology – Functional and Clinical Implications p. 159
Sunita Arvind Athavale, Sheetal Kotgirwar, Rekha Lalwani
Background: The posterior cruciate meniscofemoral ligament (MFL) complex is considered an important stabilizing structure in the human knee joint. Its role in preventing tibial translation and preventing lateral meniscus injuries is increasingly being recognized. The knowledge of the anatomy of this complex, however, lags behind as compared to our knowledge and understating of its counterpart, the anterior cruciate ligament. Methods: Sixteen adult cadaveric knee joints (eight left and eight right) were utilized for this study. The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) complex was resected out and its morphologic and morphometric assessment was done. Results: The PCL was short and stout ligamentous complex, mostly (but not always) clasped by either anterior MFLs, posterior MFL, or both. The tibial footprint was more or less circular, whereas the femoral footprint was oval and mediolaterally flattened. The PCL was constituted of two distinct fiber bundles, namely anterolateral and posteromedial. The MFLs originated from the posterior margin of the lateral meniscus just proximal to the posterior horn. The two MFLs ascend from their origin, bifurcate, and diverge to clasp the PCL. At least one MFL was observed in all specimens. Conclusion: The anatomical relationship of PCL, meniscofemoral, popliteus, and lateral meniscus suggests that they complement each other for a fine interplay and balance to execute terminal extension while simultaneously protecting the lateral meniscus. The findings of the present study contribute toward improving surgical repairs in double-bundle PCL repairs.
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A Morphometric Study Correlating Length of Femur with Fragments of its Shaft p. 165
RS Suja, T Swapna, Aswathy Maria Oommen, LS Latha Sreedhar
Background: Remains of bones can be studied to determine race, sex and stature of unidentified human bodies. Length of the femur correlates with measurements at different landmarks. Equations can be constructed to assess total femoral length (TFL), from which stature of the person to whom it belongs could be determined. The present study has been carried out to measure the transverse and antero posterior diameter of the shaft of the femur at three different levels in order to generate linear regression equations to estimate the total femoral length (TFL), in an Indian population. Methods: Length of 121 femora comprising of right (54) and left (67) sides were measured. Antero-posterior and transverse diameters of the femoral shaft, at three sites (10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm distal to the highest point on the femoral head) were measured. The data were analyzed statistically and linear regression equations were generated to calculate the TFL from measurements of the shaft. Results: Five of the six parameters demonstrated a positive correlation with length of femur. These were used for generating regression equations, using which femoral length was calculated. Conclusions: The present study provides precise osteometric data (regression equations) helpful in the reconstruction of TFL from fragments of its shaft, in the Indian population.
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Trends and Applications of Body Donation Program in Mahakaushal Region p. 169
Natwar Lal Agrawal, Mayura Setiya, Kranti Kumar Gour
Introduction: Body donation or body endowment is defined as a desired program of donating one’s body after death for progress of medical research and as a segment of medical education. In recent times, attitude, knowledge, and awareness have played a pivotal role in changing the trends of body donation. Methods: Data pertaining to 64 voluntary donated cadavers were studied over a period of 13 years in our anatomy department. Age, sex, and other data were noted and analyzed statistically. Results: An increasing trend in the profile of body donation was observed between 2015 and 2017. More male cadavers (60.9%) were donated than females (39.1%). The youngest cadaver was male (17 years), whereas the oldest cadaver was female (96 years). Cadavers were generally elderly, with an average age of 72.9 years. Conclusion: The present study is a forward step in field of database study of trends of increasing body donation which forms a key tool for anatomists and provides students and surgeons with exceptional chance to study the structure of human body. The present-day trend of body donation in our institute is sufficient to meet the demands of cadavers as per Medical Council of India (MCI) rules.
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An Unusual Bilateral Neurovascular Variation in the Axillary Region p. 173

The neurovascular variations in the upper limb are not uncommon. About 16.9% of cases, the subscapular artery bilaterally arises from the second part of the axillary artery without any neuronal variations. However, in this study, we reported a rare case of bilateral subscapular artery variations along with an abnormal communication between the branches of brachial plexus. The knowledge about these bilateral unique neurovascular variations in the axillary region becomes essential, and it is of immense significance in various clinical procedures performed by the plastic surgeon, anesthetist, neurovascular surgeons, radiologists, clinical anatomists and also for interventional cardiologists.
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