• Users Online: 248
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
  • Email this page
  • Facebook
  • Twitter
Export selected to
Reference Manager
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2020| April-June  | Volume 9 | Issue 2  
    Online since September 10, 2020

  Archives   Previous Issue   Next Issue   Most popular articles   Most cited articles
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to
  Cited Viewed PDF
Soft-fixed embalming: Our experiences
Navbir Pasricha, Eti Sthapak, R Bhatnagar, MS Siddiqui, Sonia Jaiswal
April-June 2020, 9(2):43-47
Background: There is an increased need for surgical skills training which does not involve patients in the first exposure. Clinicians and surgeons prefer honing their psychomotor skills on cadavers. Standard formalin embalming, however, does not provide a very realistic model, so an alternative approach needs to be sorted out in the form of soft-fixed embalmed cadavers to provide realistic model for such procedures. Aim: This study aimed to evolve new methods of soft embalming, which provide better cadavers for surgical training. Objectives: (1) To provide long-term structural preservation of tissues, viscera, and body and prevent fungal and bacterial growth. (2) To explore the use of glutaraldehyde solution for arterial embalming. (3) To obtain cadavers with soft consistency of muscle and tendon and maintain joint mobility. (4) To provide lifelike quality of soft-fixed cadavers for cadaveric surgical workshops. Materials and Methods: Only those bodies which were received within 12 h of death were used for soft embalming. The solution for soft embalming contained glutaraldehyde, glycerin, methanol, cetrimide, and eosin for arterial and formalin solution for cavity embalming. The cadavers were embalmed and then preserved in a deep freezer (−70°C to −80°C) for at least 30 days. After that, the cadavers were preserved in an immersion tank which contained 10% formalin diluted in water. Results: Soft-fixed embalmed cadavers were better for all aspects of training. Soft-fixed cadavers exhibited a greater degree of flexibility and color retention compared to that of traditional formalin-fixed cadavers. The preference was particularly pronounced in aspects that require flexibility of tissues such as for flap raising. Conclusions: Soft-embalmed cadavers provide a more realistic model for training of surgical skills.
  1 1,750 129
Presence of pericentric inversion in chromosome 9 in all family members
Anjali S Sabnis
April-June 2020, 9(2):75-78
Pericentric inversion is the most common type of inversion encountered in human beings. Although pericentric inversion in chromosome 9 is generally considered as normal variant without any phenotypic presentations, some conditions associated with it, like mental retardation. In the present case, we discuss a baby with mental retardation showing pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 and also parents showing the same type of inversion on chromosome 9 without any phenotypic presentations.
  - 1,119 62
We have miles to go together: Message from New Editor in Chief
Kumar Satish Ravi
April-June 2020, 9(2):37-38
  - 1,162 81
Teratogenic effects (resorptions and reduction in weight and crown rump length) of valproate on fetal mice
Pratibha Shakya, Neelesh Kumar Shakya, C Mohanty
April-June 2020, 9(2):39-42
Background and Aims: Teratology is the study of abnormal development in fetus. Teratology first came into existence in 1930 when a number of experiments were conducted. There are various causes of congenital anomalies such as genetic factors, environmental factors such as radiation, changes in temperature, hypoxia, chemical substances, drugs, and maternal infections. At present, valproic acid is the most widely used antiepileptic drug. Valproic acid is salt of dipropyl acetic acid. Most of the studies on the valproate were done at higher doses starting from 400 mg/kg. Hence, the present study was done to assess teratogenic effects at lower dose of valproate i.e., 200 mg/kg. Only few studies are conducted on fetal mice at Valproate dose of 200 mg/kg. The aim of the present study is to report the teratogenic effects of valproate at dose of 200 mg/kg on single gestational day (8th) and multiple gestational days (7th, 8th, and 9th) in fetal mice. Materials and Methods: Forty pregnant mice were taken in the present study, and these are distributed in three groups. Group A which was control group received normal saline. In Group B, Valproate was administered on single gestational day (8th). In Group C, Valproate was administered on multiple gestational days (7th, 8th, and 9th). Dose of valproate given in each group was 200 mg/kg intraperitoneally. On the 18th gestational day, fetuses were collected after uterotomy. The fetuses of all three groups were weighed by digital laboratory weighing scale. Crown rump length (CRL) of fetuses of all groups was documented by means of graph paper. Mean, standard deviation, and P value were calculated. Statistical analysis was done by the ANOVA one-way test. Results: Valproate administered groups showed resorptions. CRL and fetal weight reduction were found in treated groups. These findings were more found in Group C in comparison to Group B. Conclusion: Valproate is teratogenic drug at 200 mg/kg dose, so valproate should be prescribed at lowest efficacious dosage to minimize the teratogenic risk.
  - 1,037 80
Wash and wipe to win over COVID-19
Saha Susmita, Prachi Saffar Aneja, Bansal Savita, Vibhash Kumar Vaidya, Kumar Paras
April-June 2020, 9(2):48-53
Background and Objectives: The COVID-19 is a serious issue in every corner of the globe affecting frontline warriors and other individuals. Appropriate hand hygiene measures are considered to be the most basic but effective steps to control this disease. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge, awareness, and proper practice of hand hygiene among university undergraduate medical and nonmedical students. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional survey was conducted on 703 university undergraduate medical students (MBBS, BDS, BPT, nursing, and allied) and nonmedical students (engineering, law, commerce, etc.) at Shree Guru Gobind Singh Tricentenary University, Gurugram, Haryana, through the Google Forms by a prevalidated questionnaire to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding hand hygiene practices in this COVID-19 pandemic era. Results: The correct responses for questions based on recommended time of handwash (29.7%), minimum time required for alcohol-based hand rub to kill germs (70.1%), recommended concentration of hand rub (50.5%), and effective method of handwash (38.8%) were observed. Only 73% of the medical students and 58% of the nonmedical students knew exact steps of handwashing (as per the World Health Organization guidelines). Ninety-one percent of all the respondents agreed that they became more conscious about hand hygiene during COVID-19 pandemic. Eighty-two percent of the participants opined that the steps of hand hygiene must be included in routine curriculum. Conclusions: The results of the current survey presented an average score regarding hand hygiene knowledge and practices among university students for both medical and nonmedical streams in this COVID-19 pandemic era.
  - 1,338 79
Study of pattern of origin of central branches of middle cerebral artery by using 64-slice computed tomography angiography
Mahendra Kumar Pant, Jayanti Pant, SK Pandey, RC Shukla
April-June 2020, 9(2):54-58
Background and Aims: Middle cerebral artery (MCA), a branch of the internal carotid artery, is the most commonly affected vessel in cerebrovascular diseases. Various studies have reported for variations in the origin pattern of MCA. The detection of these variations is of clinical relevance for the clinicians for planning their line of treatment. The present study was performed to identify the variations using 64-slice computed tomography (CT) angiography. Materials and Methods: The present study was performed in 45 participants (32 males and 13 females). MCA was identified and observed for a different pattern of origin of the central (perforating) branches using 64-slice CT angiography. Results: The observations revealed that the M1 segment of MCA showed single, dual, or multiple origins of central branches. Single central branch of MCA originated in 8.88% of cases, double branches were observed in 11.11% of cases, whereas the multiple branches were found in 66.67% of cases and mix pattern was observed in 13.3% of cases. These central branches coursed through the anterior perforating substance to reach the basal area of the subcortical zone. Conclusions: The present study revealed the variations in origin of the central branches of MCA using 64-slice CT angiography and the knowledge of radiological identification of these variations can be of use for radiologists and neurosurgeons dealing with cerebrovascular diseases.
  - 1,187 76
Morphometric study of uncinate process of cervical vertebra and its surgical importance
P Durga, KR Dakshayani
April-June 2020, 9(2):59-62
Introduction: Uncinate process (UP) is a projection on the posterolateral margins of the superior surface of the body of the cervical vertebra. They are involved in the uncovertabral (Luschka's) joints, with intervertebral foramen in between, which is related to vertebral artery and spinal nerve roots. Osteophytes of UP cause narrowing of intervertebral foramen, resulting in cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. Objectives: (1) To measure the morphometric parameters of UP of the cervical vertebra. (2) To classify the cervical vertebra on the basis of the encroachment of UP on the adjacent intervertebral foramen. Materials and Methods: One hundred dry cervical vertebrae were obtained from regions in and around Mysore, Karnataka, India. Measurements were taken using digital Vernier calipers. Results: Mean average values of the parameters are: width – 3.389 ± 0.83 mm (right), 3.389 ± 0.86 mm (left); length – 10.42 ± 1.46 mm (right), 10.64 ± 1.88 mm (left); and height – 5.32 ± 1.36 mm (right), 5.21 ± 1.16 mm (left). Classification of UP according to its encroachment on intervertebral foramen which is traversed by neurovascular structures, which may be compressed. Conclusion: Comparing the results of te present study with previous studies in different regions will help neurosurgeons to determine the boundaries of UP and allow adequate decompression of neural elements with reduced risk of neurovascular structures during anterior decompression of the spine.
  - 803 64
Perceptions and attitudes of medical students toward the use of digital surgical operative video in lecture – A better anatomical understanding
Medora C Dsouza Dias, Rajesh T Patil
April-June 2020, 9(2):63-65
Background and Aims: There are numerous variations in the branching of the internal iliac artery (IIA), which are important during any pelvic surgery. An aberrant/accessory obturator vessel is the most common source of hemorrhage during pelvic surgery and to prevent this, one needs to have a good knowledge of pelvic vascular anatomy. Our aim was to enhance the learning process of the branching pattern of the IIA in MBBS students in order for them to better understand the concept of aberrant/accessory obturator artery (OA) and corona mortis (CM). Materials and Methods: First-year MBBS students after completing their routine dissection of branches of the IIA, were shown a video of laparoscopic femoral hernia reduction surgery and their feedback was taken. Results: Nearly 95.82% of the students agreed that they observed and understood aberrant OA, 99.16% of the students agreed that they observed and understood accessory OA, 98.33% of the students agreed that they observed and understood the CM concept, and 100% of the students felt that more such videos should be incorporated and discussed in future interactive lecture teaching. Conclusion: This study incorporates the levels of competency as per AET-COM teaching module in the knowledge domain, i.e., “Knows” and “Knows-How.” This study proves that learning anatomy can be made more interesting for and be better conceptualized, visualized, and understood by students by incorporation of relevant surgical/clinical video clips during conventional teaching.
  - 883 50
Communication between the median nerve and the musculocutaneous nerve: Occurrence and significance
BN Shruthi, Shreya Krishnamurthy, K Ruthvik, B Rahul
April-June 2020, 9(2):66-71
Background: The median nerve and musculocutaneous nerve are nerves arising from the brachial plexus supplying the muscles of the arm and forearm. The communication between these nerves is of clinical importance in the traumatology of the shoulder joint and upper arm and in situations where a surgeon needs to isolate and trace the median and musculocutaneous nerves distally. Aims and objectives: The study was conducted to observe and discuss the communications between the median and musculocutaneous nerves. The data was statistically analysed. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 60 cadaveric upper limbs (left: right=30:30) obtained from the department of Anatomy, Rajarajeswari Medical College and Hospital, Bengaluru. The brachial plexus was dissected according to standard dissection procedures and the median nerve and musculocutaneous nerve were exposed. Results: The musculocutaneous nerve did not pierce the coracobrachialis in 5 limbs. However, the nerve did supply the coracobrachialis muscle in all cases. In 5 upper limbs (8.3%), a single communicating nerve was observed between the median nerve and the musculocutaneous nerve. In one case (1.67%), two communicating nerves were observed between the median nerve and the musculocutaneous nerve. Conclusion: Variations in the formation and branching of the brachial plexus have been reported by several researchers. The anatomical variations of musculocutaneous nerve and median nerve are important to neurosurgeons ,orthopaedicians and general surgeons who deal with cases of neurofibromatosis and neurotization procedures. Surgeons must consider the possible presence of the communication between the median nerve and musculocutaneous nerve in such cases.
  - 1,324 88
A study on morphology of suprascapular notch with specific emphasis on type-VI of rengachary classification
Tushar V Nayak, Subhash M Gujar
April-June 2020, 9(2):72-74
Background and Aim: Superior border is shortest border of scapula which is marked by suprascapular notch bridged by transverse suprascapular ligament. Beneath this ligament passes the suprascapular nerve. Narrow notch and Type-VI suprascapular notch are one of the risk factors for suprascapular neuropathy. This study is done to study morphological variation of suprascapular notch. Knowledge of various types of suprascapular notch will help the clinician in early diagnosis and surgical treatment. Materials and Methods: A total of 525 human scapulae were taken to study morphology of suprascapular notch at the Anatomy Department, GMERS Medical College, Vadnagar and at B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad. Age and sex of scapulae were not established. Digital camera is used to take photos of different suprascapular notch and classified as per Rengachary classification. Results: As per Rengachary classification in our study, of 525 scapulae most common suprascapular notch type is Type-III 47.1%, least common is Type-V 1.9%, and incidence of Type-VI is 8.9%. Conclusion: A study of different types of suprascapular notch can help the physician in screening high risk patient as well as diagnosis and treatment of suprascapular neuropathy disorder.
  - 941 97