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   2021| January-March  | Volume 10 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 27, 2021

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A Study on the Advantages and Disadvantages of the Online Teaching Program Conducted in the Department of Anatomy, AIIMS, Raipur – Students' Perspective
Meryl Rachel John, Dhanesh Kumar Sharma, Joseph Abraham Poonuraparampil, Vijay Kumar Konuri
January-March 2021, 10(1):10-16
Background: Medical education in India always relied on the traditional classroom method of teaching. The current COVID pandemic brought a situation where online classes have taken precedence over the traditional classroom teaching. Here we attempt to see from the students' perspective whether online classes can replace the traditional classroom teaching. Aims and objectives: We aimed to study the advantages and disadvantages of online learning. Materials and methods: Online live streamed classes using Free Conference Call app were held in the Department of Anatomy, AIIMS Raipur. Live streaming, pre-recorded lecture videos were supplemented by cadaveric dissection videos, assignments etc posted in Google Classroom. Feedback regarding the online classes were obtained from first year undergraduate medical students using Google Forms. Results: A total of 72 students responded to the survey. 57 students used mobile phones to access the classes. 10 students preferred the online classes with chalk and board lecture, 23 students preferred lecture with PowerPoint presentation while the rest preferred online classes with chalk and board lecture followed by PowerPoint presentation. Out of the total (n=72) respondents, majority of them experienced technical issues which hampered their online learning experience. Owing to this reason, 43 students showed preference for pre-recorded videos over online live classes. 41.7% of the students opined that online classes should be included as a part of MBBS anatomy curriculum. Conclusion: Online learning in the form of live classes and recorded videos can be included as a part of routine Anatomy curriculum but it can never be a substitute for interactive face to face classroom learning and practical session.
  4,105 388 1
Anatomical and Clinical Characteristics of Paediatric and Adult Eyes
Mittal Sunita, Sharma Manisha, Mittal Kumar Sanjeev, Kumar Satish Ravi, Juneja Aarzoo, Agrawal Ajai
January-March 2021, 10(1):5-9
The human eye is one of the special sensory organs. Eyes undergo a series of changes right from infancy to attainment of adulthood. Major changes occur in globe dimensions, orbital and neurological structures. In order to have a sharp focus of the image on the retina, the intraocular structures undergo developmental changes in the 1st year of life along with the neurological growth which enables processing of that retinal image. The extraocular growth of the bony orbit and adnexa accompanies intraocular growth. An ophthalmologist looking after the pediatric patient must be aware of these physiological changes so as to not diagnose them as any pathologic conditions. There are few diseases which can also interfere with these normal developmental changes. It is valuable to know the developmental process to diagnose children with eye disorders. This review article lays emphasis on the normal anatomical alterations in the globe, anterior segment, pupil, lens, retina, lacrimal apparatus, and external orbit of the human eye during infancy and early adulthood and also discussing its practical implications.
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Mask – A Ubiquitous Symbol of COVID-19 Scuffle
NB Pushpa, Kumar Satish Ravi
January-March 2021, 10(1):1-4
  1,347 119 -
Study of Scalene Tubercle and Morphological Features of the First Rib with Clinical Implications
S Keerthi, PR Prefulla, BJ Bhuvaneswari, E Mohanapriya
January-March 2021, 10(1):17-20
Aim and Objectives: The study aims to study the scalene tubercle and morphological features of the first rib with clinical importance. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty adult human dry first ribs of unknown sex were studied. The morphological features studied were scalene tubercle, vascular groove, oblique ridge, tubercle, and the head of the first rib. The obtained data were recorded and analyzed. Results: Scalene tubercle was absent in 13.75%, rudimentary in 23.33%, and hypertrophied in 1.67%. Of 240 first ribs, 1.25% was found with the attached cervical rib. The vascular groove was absent in 11.25%. Oblique ridge was absent in 5.83%. The head and tubercle were observed to be rudimentary in 16.67% and 12.5%, respectively. Conclusions: The findings of the present study will be useful for anatomists, anesthetists, forensic surgeons, and general surgeons for the identification of the first rib and management of anomalies related to the first rib.
  1,042 92 -
Clinical Significance of Origin of Cystic Artery and its Relations to Calot's Triangle
Swapna Thampi, Renuka Krishnapillai, Revathi Murugesan, Suja Robert Sarasammal, Umesan Kannan vilakom Govindapillai
January-March 2021, 10(1):35-40
Background and Aim: Cystic artery (CA) is one of the important structures to be ligated during cholecystectomy. Recurring complications such as hemorrhage or liver injury has attracted surgeons, radiologists, and anatomists to do research on the topic. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two formalized cadavers were used for this study. After opening the abdomen, lesser omentum was separated, followed by fine dissection of CA. Findings were recorded and variations were photographed. The collected data were analyzed, and the prevalence was expressed as percentage. Results: In 68.75%, single CA was passing through the Calot's triangle (CT), and in 4.5%, double CA was passing through the CT. Conclusion: Accurate knowledge of CA anatomy is essential to avoid iatrogenic extrahepatic biliary injuries in surgeries related to this region. We have focused to explore CA variations to help the surgeons and radiologists.
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A Comparative Study on Segmental Micro-Anatomy of the Human Fallopian Tube
Soumya Ramakrishnan, Kumari Thoppilparambil Kunjunni, Susan Varghese
January-March 2021, 10(1):46-50
Background: The Fallopian tubes serve as a bridge between the ovary and uterus and is divided into infundibular, ampullary, isthmic, and intramural segments from lateral to medial. Each segment is structurally and functionally equipped to perform specific functions. The maintenance of normal micro-anatomy of each segment is very important for successful spontaneous pregnancy. This study has compared the histological features of the isthmus, ampulla, and infundibulum. Materials and Methods: Tissue bits were taken from isthmus, ampulla, and infundibulum of Fallopian tubes of 100 women of reproductive age group and these were subjected to routine histological processing, and slides were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The mean value of the number of primary mucosal folds and muscle thickness of each segment was calculated and compared with each other. Results: In the ampullary and infundibular region, there were primary, secondary, and tertiary folds with a mean value of 33.42 ± 4.49 and 31.53 ± 4.92, respectively. In the region of the isthmus, there were few primary mucosal folds with a mean value of 8.31 ± 0.9. The muscular layer was found thickest inthe isthmus with a mean value of 7.72 ± 0.76 mm and in the region of ampulla and infundibulum, the mean values were 4.39 ± 0.57 mm and 3.43 ± 0.48 mm, respectively. Conclusion: The ampullary region has maximum number of branching mucosal folds which ensure close contact with the developing embryo and provides nutrition. At infundibulum also there were numerous mucosal folds which help in accommodating the large number of ciliated cells which plays a major role in ovum pick up and transport as the muscle layer was found to be very thin in this region. The peristaltic contraction of thick muscle layer in the isthmus plays a very important role in the transport of embryo as only a few mucosal folds were found in this region.
  955 105 -
Cadaveric Study of Topographical Location and Arterial Diameter of Superficial Palmar Arch with its Clinical Implication
KL Varalakshmi
January-March 2021, 10(1):21-24
Background: During the surgical exposure of carpal tunnel, it is possible to injure neurovascular structures, especially the superficial palmar arch (SPA) due to its proximity to the flexor retinaculum. Hence, the topographical location of SPA is necessary to avoid iatrogenic injuries. Size of the vessels forming SPA is important to carry out new procedures in the microsurgical techniques in reconstructive surgeries. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 40 cadaveric hands obtained from AJ Institute of Medical science, Mangalore. The distance between the SPA and distal wrist crease (DWC) and Kaplan's cardinal line (KCL) were measured. Diameters of arteries which are mainly contributing in the formation of SPA and its branches were measured with a digital caliper, and mean and standard deviation were calculated. Results: The distance of SPA, from DWC was 44.22 ± 4.98 mm and from KCL along the lateral and medial border of ring fingers was 8.32 ± 1.01 mm and 9.54 ± 0.95 mm, respectively. The average diameter of the ulnar artery was 2.84 mm; radial artery was 2.79 mm; the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery, princeps pollicis artery, and the median artery was 1.5 mm, 1.24 mm, and 2.025 mm, respectively. Conclusion: The results of the present study on the location of the SPA as well as arterial diameters will be of great help for the surgeons and radiologists. Advances in reconstructive surgeries of the hand, especially microsurgeries has entailed a better understanding of arterial variations, in-depth knowledge of which is necessary for the positive outcome of surgical procedures.
  835 96 -
A Study on Morphological Features of Nutrient Foramen of the Tibia in Human Population of South Bihar Region
Shambhu Prasad, Sanjeev Kumar Sinha, Swati Suman, Syed M B. Hayat
January-March 2021, 10(1):41-45
Background: Tibia is weight-bearing long bone. Nutrient arteries are the prime source of blood supply for any long bone including tibia. A study of dimensions and location of nutrient foramen and direction of the nutrient artery canal can give an insight into the role that these arteries play in development and sustenance of bone. The objective of the study was to present the morphological features of nutrient foramen of the tibia in South Bihar region. Materials and Methods: Sixty tibias (30 of each side) were used for the study. Morphometric analysis of bones was done to find out number, position, and direction of nutrient foramen. We did a comparative study of our findings with observation of previous workers. Results: All bones had nutrient foramen. Five percent had double while 95% bones had single foramen. Nutrient canal was directed downward in all bones except one. In 84.13% of bones, nutrient foramen was on the posterior surface; foramen was lateral to the soleal line in 81.13% of these bones. 80.95% of the foramens were situated in the superior third of the tibial shaft. Conclusion: Knowledge about possible variations in number, position, and direction of nutrient canal can be of use for preservation of nutrient vessels during surgical procedures as well as in prognostic evaluation of the treatment given.
  809 67 -
A Study of Brachial Plexus Sheath and Dye Spread Through the Sheath in Single- and Multi-Directional Injections in Cadaver
Subhramoy Chaudhury, Anasuya Ghosh
January-March 2021, 10(1):25-29
Background: The in-depth understanding of the anatomy of brachial plexus (BP) sheath is very important for the successful application of BP block. The flow dynamics of injectable anesthetic might vary depending on the site and mode of injection. The objectives of this study were to explore and document the detailed anatomy of BP sheath and to compare the dye spread by injections given in single direction and multi-directional approaches in formalin-fixed cadavers. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive, observational, and cross-sectional study based on findings on cadaver dissection and injecting dye in cadavers. Twenty-four sides of 12 well-embalmed cadavers were utilized for injecting dye solution into the intact brachial sheath by single-direction and multi-direction injection approaches at the axillary level. All the cadavers were dissected to compare the spread of dye in two approaches. In addition, one more cadaver was utilized for a detailed dissection of the infraclavicular part of BP sheath and its contents without injecting dye. Microsoft Excel software was used for statistical analysis. Results: We observed BP sheath was a fibrous connective tissue sheath-containing multiple neurovascular structures, all of which had individual delicate connective tissue wrapping around them. More uniform dye spread was observed in multi-direction approaches and the musculocutaneous nerve was stained more frequently in multi-direction approach. Conclusions: The presence of delicate porous connective tissue wrapping gives a tunnel-like appearance of the infraclavicular part of BP sheath. Multi-directional injections resulted in dye staining of the larger area involving more structures than single-direction injections.
  814 59 -
Coronoid Foramina in a Pediatric Mandible: An Incidental Finding of a Morphologic and Developmental Anatomic Variant as a Distinctive Documented Feature
S Ghousia, CS Nyer Firdoose
January-March 2021, 10(1):51-54
The new advancing technologies have created a storm in the long-existing canons of anatomic sciences with the bandwagon of recent anatomical discoveries such as the existence and identification of a bilateral foramen in the coronoid process of the mandible. The coronoid process being a thin flat triangular process varies in shape and size and gives attachment to the main muscles of mastication the temporalis and the masseter. The excitement of exploratory anatomic victory on mysteries related to the anatomy of the head-and-neck region specific to the coronoid process was further documented and elaborated as an incidental finding. The following manuscript presents an intriguing case of a pediatric patient aged 7 years with a morphologic variation of coronoid process with presence of foramina bilaterally along with few other variants, further attempting to emphasize its occurrence in the developmental years as a possibility of developmental variant trait.
  787 45 -
Microanatomy of Left Internal Thoracic Artery and Left Anterior Descending Artery: A Comparative Study
TK Kumari, Lola Das, K Renuka, R Rajeev, Nithin K Raju
January-March 2021, 10(1):30-34
Introduction: The knowledge of the microscopic structure of the left internal thoracic artery (LITA) and left anterior descending (LAD) artery can be correlated to the effectiveness of coronary artery bypass grafting using LITA graft. The objectives of the study were to study the microanatomy of the LITA and LAD artery, to compare the thickness of the wall of both arteries, and to report the elastic and muscular nature of these arteries. Materials and Method: Postmortem specimens of both the arteries from 50 samples of males were collected from the mortuary of Forensic Medicine, Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram. The tissues were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin and special staining. A photo micrometer was used for measuring the thickness of the wall, diameter of the lumen, and number of smooth muscles. Results: The mean thickness of tunica intima (TI) of LITA and LAD was 18.8 μ and 129.8 μ, respectively. The lumen diameter of LITA and LAD was 945.25 μm2 and 1653.45 μm2, respectively. The thickness of tunica media (TM) and the diameter of the lumen of LITA were increased with age. The number of smooth muscles in LITA was decreased with age. The thickness of TI, media, adventitia, and the luminal diameter of LAD were increased with age. The number of smooth muscles in LAD was decreased with age. Conclusion: Proximal segments of LITA had more elastic fibers arranged in concentric lamellae, especially in the outer zone. The TM of LAD has a greater number of smooth muscles and a smaller number of elastic fibers.
  779 51 -
Reviewers of 2020 (Volume 9)

January-March 2021, 10(1):55-55
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